When scientists examine discriminatory conduct in New Jersey and across the country, they often find that problems are less attributable to overt bigotry than to unconscious bias. Unconscious bias, or beliefs and stereotypes embraced at a subconscious level, can affect the way that people respond to others, judge their behavior or assess their intentions. Unfortunately, many of these unconscious biases reflect racist and sexist stereotypes, putting people and their liberty and even lives at risk if they enter the criminal justice system.
Georgia residents may be interested in learning the role that analyzing blood splatter has in unearthing the particulars of a crime. Blood pattern analysis can be traced back to 19th-century Europe. Since the mid-1900s, it has taken on a more prominent role in crime scene investigations in the United States.
For many in Georgia, community service sentencing in criminal cases seems to present a more humane alternative to heavy fines or jail time, especially for people living in poverty. However, one study by the UCLA Labor Center and School of Law challenges these assumptions. It argues that the widespread use of community service sentencing devalues labor and may wind up exacerbating unemployment, especially in low-income communities and communities of color. It can even produce similar effects to court debt for large fines, especially because people sentenced to community service may need to provide weeks of unpaid labor to pay off their citations.
Getting tough on crime is something that the president has made a priority during his time in the White House. However, it is important to note that crime rates have fallen in Georgia and throughout America since the 1990s. According to the FBI, violent crime rates fell 51% between 1993 and 2018, and property crimes are also less common today compared to 30 years ago. Property crimes include burglary or motor vehicle theft.
Arrests can ruin lives. According to a study published in the journal Crime & Delinquency, people in Georgia and around the country who have been arrested once by age 26 earn around $5,000 less each year than those with clean records. Meanwhile, people who have had multiple arrests by age 26 earn around $13,000 less per year. In addition, those with criminal records have more trouble landing jobs and getting married.
A growing criminal justice reform movement across the country has placed greater scrutiny upon the use of jailhouse informants. According to the Innocence Project, which works to free people from prison who suffered wrongful convictions, nearly 20% of wrongful convictions arise from false testimony provided by jailhouse informants. As a result, criminal defendants in Georgia could be vulnerable to misleading statements gathered by prosecutors from their cellmates.
Georgia residents could be charged with a felony for calling in sick when they aren't actually ill. They could also be charged with a felony for other seemingly absurd reasons such as improperly importing primates or getting lost in the woods. However, the consequences of being a felon are nothing to laugh about. Those who are convicted of a felony could lose their right to vote in an election or carry a weapon.
Approximately 6% of state prisoners across the U.S., many of whom are presumably in Georgia, have been wrongfully convicted, according to a study by researchers at Penn State University. The findings were published in the Journal of Quantitative Criminology in April 2018.
Video doorbell technologies are becoming more popular in Georgia and across the country. When people install a Ring doorbell, they can see who is at their door by checking the video feed provided by the accompanying mobile phone app. However, people may not fully realize that they are also providing this information to law enforcement agencies. Ring was purchased in 2018 by Amazon for $1 billion, indicating the popularity of the technology. Under Ring partnership agreements, police have access to a special portal that allows them to request video material from community members. Few might object to police asking for the information.
For many people in Georgia accused of a crime, a plea bargain may seem an almost inevitable way to resolve the charges. After all, a full 97% of federal criminal convictions are garnered through the use of agreed-upon guilty pleas, rather than a conviction in court. The same is true of 94% of state criminal convictions. In 2018 alone, federal prosecutors initiated 80,000 cases, and only 2% went to trial. These numbers may come as a surprise; after all, it would seem that many people have a better chance to argue their cases before a jury of their peers where prosecutors are forced to prove allegations beyond a reasonable doubt.